Emre YILMAZ-Sinan OZER-MUSTAFA SAHIN
Bursa Uludag University, Büyükorhan Vocational School, Child Development
Ministry of Education, Governor Ozbilgin Primary School, Adıyaman
Harran University, Viranşehir, Child Development
The aim of this study is to determine which of the values in the 2018 curriculum are mentioned and how these values are expressed in the “Risale-i Nur” containing a few books and compiled by Bediüzzaman Said Nursi (r.a.). Another aim is to examine the statements about values deeply. For this reason, document analysis method which is one of the qualitative research designs was used in the study. While collecting the data, the keywords representing the six values determined were scanned through the digital formats of the Risale-i Nur works. The collected data were analyzed by using descriptive analysis method. According to the findings, it was found that there were many expressions directly and indirectly in the Risale-i Nur about the six values determined. It has been seen that some values are supported by samples and stories in a way that even children can easily understand and comprehend its importance and good, rational, concrete samplings were given about values. As a result, the Islamic method of the Risale-i Nur can be used, especially when teaching the values in the classroom at the primary and pre-primary grades. Values can be explained to children in their language using the samples and stories in these books.
Key Words: value, values education, risale-i nur
تعليم القيم في رسائل النور
الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو تحديد أي من القيم في منهج 2018 مذكور وكيف يتم التعبير عن هذه القيم في رسائل النور للإمام بديع الزمان سعيد النورسي. تهدف أيضا فحص العبارات حول القيم بعمق. ولهذا السبب تم استخدام طريقة تحليل المستندات التي تعد من تصميمات البحث النوعي في الدراسة. أثناء جمع البيانات، تم فحص الكلمات الرئيسية التي تمثل القيم الست المحددة من خلال التنسيقات الرقمية لدراسات رسائل النور. قمنا بتحليل البيانات التي تم جمعها باستخدام طريقة التحليل الوصفي. وفقا للنتائج، وُجد أن هناك العديد من التعبيرات بشكل مباشر وغير مباشر في رسائل النور حول القيم الست المحددة. وقد لوحظ أيضا أن بعض القيم مدعومة بالعينات والقصص بطريقة يمكن حتى للأطفال فهمها بسهولة وتم أخذ عينات جيدة وعقلانية وملموسة عن القيم. ونتيجة لذلك، يمكن استخدام الطريقة الإسلامية في برنامج رسائل النور، خاصة عند تدريس القيم في الفصل الدراسي في الصفوف الابتدائية وما قبل الابتدائية. يمكن شرح القيم للأطفال بلغتهم باستخدام العينات والقصص في هذه الكتب.
الكلمات المفتاحية: قيمة، تعليم القيم، رسائل النور
Although today’s developing technology has many advantages to humanity, it has brought disadvantages in terms of negatively affecting many human characteristics such as the relationship and communication between people, socialization, neighborhood, love, respect, tolerance and so on. For this reason, the need to raise individuals who approach each other with love, respect and tolerance and who can understand and empathize from each other’s state is increasing (Alan, 2014). With the increasing globalization besides technology, the concepts of freedom, democracy and human rights have started to be emphasized in public. The necessity of the generation to be able to keep up with living in a more complex era than the previous generations has come to the fore. In this context, it is important that our values are gained by the teachers in the school environment and by the parents in the family (Zengin, 2015).
Although the concept of “value which derives from the root of the word ‘valare’ which means precious in Latin, has many definitions in the literature, it can be defined as norms, beliefs and tendencies, social standards and aims of a society in general. Values represent ideal ways of thinking and acting, social control and solidarity tools for each society. The abstract measure that determines the importance of something can be defined as the value and useful quality that something has. (Ulusoy & Dilmaç, 2012).
Respect, love and responsibility are the most important social values. Values valid in all times and places; justice, humility, understanding, companionship, forgiveness, devotion, peace, courage, generosity, truthfulness, friendship, being thoughtful, empathy, credibility, tolerance, being steady, cooperation, obedience, benevolence, self-esteem, leadership, compassion, kindness, self-confidence, sharing, patience, loyalty, respect, love, responsibility, gratitude, fraternity, loyalty, helpfulness, chastity, spirituality, joy of life, discipline, consistency in words and behaviors that is honesty (Aydın and Akyol Gürler, 2012).
In line with the current studies conducted by MEB (Ministry of National Education) on values education, 10 root values (justice, friendship, honesty, self-control, patience, respect, love, responsibility, patriotism, benevolence), which form the basis of the Social Studies course, have been included in the 2018 program. Within the framework of Social Studies course, there are 16 values (giving importance to family unity, independence, peace, being scientific, hard work, solidarity, sensitivity, honesty, aesthetics, equality, freedom, respect, love, responsibility, economy, patriotism). It has been announced that the innovations would be effective as of the 2018-2019 academic year (MoNE, 2018). All these values that should be gained to individuals have attracted attention to values education. So, what is values education?
It can be said that values education is a training given for the realization of the activities that make human beings human in line with the purpose of revealing the difference of human beings from other creatures. Values education has actually taken its place as an important subject of education since the beginning of education. For this reason, the transfer of material and spiritual values, which are the cultural heritage of society, to individuals constitutes one of the most important functions of education (Alan, 2014). Because values have been one of the fundamental problems of social sciences. Nowadays, scientific researches about the values that become indispensable for contemporary life as well as academic success and how to teach these values to students are increasing. At this point, values education has become a popular field of research. In our education policy, it is seen that education is inadequate even if education is a bit sufficient. For this reason, more importance has been given to the development of features that make human beings human. Values can also be taught and learned. Therefore, values are primarily a subject of education. This training is not only limited to the courses given in schools, but also can be given in family environment and out-of-school activities (Aydın and Akyol Gürler, 2012). This education should be started first in the family in the preschool period, because the first circle of the individual is his family. Accordingly, it is the first place where family values education begins. Even after the child starts school, the family should continue the values education of their children in cooperation with the school (Ulusoy and Dilmaç, 2012).
If we want our future generations to grow up to be responsible and accepted individuals in the society who are committed to their culture and values, we need to give more importance to value education. At this point, the primary responsibility falls to the family because it is the first kindergarten and the first environment in which the child is socialized. The child does what he sees from his parents. Pre-school period is one of the periods in which the tendency to imitate is highest (Tongar, 2017 and Güneş, 2017). In this respect, as Oruç (2010) emphasizes, values education is an education that should be given to children especially when they are young. In the later process, when the social environment of the child shifts from family to school, the school is also included in this education and teachers have important responsibilities.
2. LITERATURE SEARCH
In the qualitative research conducted by Meydan (2014), document review method was used. The study concluded that values education is necessary both for the individual and the society as well as for education itself. In this education, it was seen that holistic approaches based on the circumstance of the child’s life with values give more positive results.
In another study in which similar findings were obtained, Zengin (2015) examined the responsibility of values education as a result of ongoing developments such as increasing the importance given to values and values education from different perspectives. It provided a perspective on what the scope of values education will be in a holistic framework and how it can be conducted in a process. As a result of the research, it is stated that schools should determine the values with a holistic approach and inform the students about these values. It is emphasized that the schools have an important responsibility for understanding, internalizing and transforming these values into students’ behaviors.
Kurtulmuş, Tösten and Gündaş (2014) aimed to reveal the problems faced by primary school teachers in the process of values education. As a result of their descriptive studies with the participation of 360 teachers, it was revealed that teachers faced many problems in the process of values education. The reasons for these problems are the lack of interest in families, the lack of time for values education due to the intensity of the curriculum, the negative media content such as television and smartphones, violence and sexuality, and the inadequacy of teachers in values education. Similar to these findings, Berkant, Efendioğlu and Sürmeli (2014) examined the views of teachers about values education. According to the study, the main reasons for the difficulties of students in value learning were; the lack of education and unconsciousness of families. Subsequently, the mismatch between the family and the school, the negative effects of the media and TV series, the students being without a target and not having the sense of responsibility, the inability of the students to internalize the values, the victimization of the students who obey the rules, the lack of content of the courses that include the values, and the content of the courses being learned in the theory but not transforming into behavior are listed as reason. Thornberg (2008) conducted a comparative analysis in the qualitative study conducted by interviewing 13 teachers. In the study, it was found that values education is often reactive and unplanned, focused on students’ daily behaviors and embedded in daily school life, partially or mostly unconsciously. In addition, it was determined that teachers lacked professional knowledge in the field of values education.
In another study, Pekdoğan and Korkmaz (2017) found that most of the teachers did not receive a training on values education, more studies should be done on pre-school values education, and the provision of in-service trainings, seminars or courses to teachers about values education would contribute to innovations in values education.
In the quasi-experimental study conducted by Dereli İman (2014) with the participation of 66 students attending pre-school education, the Values Education Program, which lasted for 11 weeks and 33 sessions, was administered to the experimental group represented by 33 students. As a result of the study, it was found that the social skills, psychosocial development and social problem solving skills scores of the children participating in the Values Education Program were significantly higher than the average scores of children who did not participate in the education program. These findings prove that children should receive values education at a young age.
Alan (2014) stated that the texts in the Turkish textbook play an important role in educating the desired human type in terms of values education and that the interesting prophets in the Qur’an contain many encouraging messages in terms of values education. At the end of the study, it was emphasized that taking the stories in Turkish textbooks as free reading pieces would be beneficial for values education.
3.1. Research Design
The design of the study is the document analysis method within qualitative research methodology. Document analysis involves the analysis of written materials containing information about the event or facts that are intended to be investigated (Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2016). His works bearing the traces of past phenomena are used in the analysis of written or printed materials such as books, journals (Karasar, 2008).
In this study, it is aimed to reveal which values that are in the 2018 curriculum of the Ministry of Education in Turkey are mentioned in the books of “Risale-i Nur” authored by Bediuzzaman Said Nursi (r.a.) and how they are mentioned. Another aim of the study is to describe the expressions about the most mentioned values in Risale-i Nur as an Islamic approach to values education in terms of values education. In addition, within the framework of values education, it was determined how these values were expressed by the Risale-i Nur method (sampling, explanation, narrative and experienced event giving, proof, comparison, classification). For this reason, the research data were obtained by document analysis method. In cases where direct observation and interview is not possible or in order to increase the validity of the research, written and visual materials and materials related to the research problem studied may be included in the research as well as interview and observation methods. Document analysis or analysis can be used as a stand-alone research method or as a source of additional information supporting other qualitative methods (Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2016). The main advantage of document analysis is that, since the researcher does not interact with individuals while collecting data, there are no problems arising from interaction in other qualitative data collection methods such as observation and interview (Metin, 2016).
3.2. Data analysis
The data obtained in the study were analyzed using descriptive analysis method. The main purpose of the descriptive analysis is to present the findings to the reader in a summarized and interpreted form (Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2016). In this study, digital formats of Risale-i Nur works selected for document analysis and originally written in Ottoman Turkish were scanned. As a result of these studies, it was revealed that Bediüzzaman Said Nursi (r.a.) expresses directly the values of “patience, justice, love, honesty, economy, being scientific” which are stated at the elementary school level of MEB in the 2018 curriculum. During the screening, the words “muhabbat (love), sidq (truthfulness), iqtisad (frugality) and science (being scientific)” which are the equivalent of some expressions in Ottoman Turkish were also used. 28 of the expressions obtained from the scanned parts of the documents directly related to the values are quoted. The 32 values that are derived from the 28 statements quoted represent the codes of the study while the 6 values determined constitute the category of the data.
A total of 129 results were found after screening with the keyword “patience” the value of “patience”. Bediuzzaman Said Nursi’s statements on the value of “Patience” were found in many of his works. However, it is seen that he directly deals with patience in his books “The Flashed” and “A Guide for Ladies”. The first expression we see is in the Second Flash, and the following statement, which summarizes the short story of the hero of patience Ayyub (a.s.).
“He endured the suffering of wounds and ulcers for a very long period, yet he bore this illness with perfect patience, thinking only of its great reward. Yet when the maggots that had emerged from his wounds started to affect his heart and his tongue, he said – not thinking of his own comfort, but rather [in the hope] that the worship he was engaged in with his heart and tongue, the loci of the remembrance and gnosis of the Divine (ma’rifat-i Ilāhiya), would not be thereby impaired, praying “my Lord, the harm has visited me, and it has impaired the remembrance of my tongue and the worship of my heart.” Allāhu Ta‘ālā accepted that sincere, pure and guileless supplication, that is made just for Allāh, in an utterly phenomenal manner. He bestowed complete good health upon him and showered him with all the diversity of His mercy.” (The Flashes p.4)
From this statement, we understand that illnesses are atonement for sins and bring great rewards with them, so we need patience. As another expression of patience, in A Guide for Ladies he tells about the patience for worship and reinforces it with a beautiful story.
“O my impatient nafs! Is it reasonable at all to think today of ‘the burden of worship and the hardship of the prayer and the trouble of calamity’ of the past days; and be impatient today by thinking of ‘the duty of worship and the service of the prayer and the pain of disaster’? In this impatience, you are like an insane commander. He is such an insane commander that the right wing of whose enemy [changed sides and] joined the right wing of his own army. Although he has received a fresh force for his army, he [foolishly] sends a great force to his right wing. He then sends another great force to his left wing – despite the fact that the enemy had no soldiers there and they had not yet arrived – and thereby totally weakens his position in the centre. The enemy realises what happened and attacks the centre, and shatters his army completely. Yes, you look like this. ”(A Guide for Ladies p.127-128)
In this statement, it is stated that we must use the power of patience given to us by Allah in a good way. It was emphasized that we should devote more patience to the present time, especially when we are showing patience to worship. It is understood that we must live the moment and think only about the present, that is, the moment we are in, otherwise the power of patience spent for the future and past time will be exhausted unnecessarily quickly and that power will not be enough even for the moment lived in. In another statement about patience, it is mentioned again in the book “A Guide for Ladies” and it is stated that there are 3 types of patience. These are patience for worship, patience not to enter into rebellion and sins, and patience for illness and trouble.
“Now my impatient soul! You have to have three types of patience. One is patience regarding obedience. One is patience against sins. The other is patience against calamity. If you have reason, take the truth that is told in the allegory in the third warning. Courageously, say “Yaa Sabuur!” and shoulder the three types of patience. If you do not dispense the power of patience that Allah Almighty has given to you on the wrong path, it can suffice for every pain and disaster; endure with that power.” (A Guide for Ladies p.127-128)
A total of 339 results were found after screening with the keyword “justice” for the “value of justice.” Bediuzzaman Said Nursi’s statements regarding the value of “justice” are found in many of his works. However, it is seen that he directly deals with justice in his works “The Staff of Moses and Dhulfiqar”. The first statements that appear before us are as follows in the book “The Staff of Moses”.
“This eternal justice clearly manifests itself in the blows by which it has always struck despotic, oppressive nations, right down from the time of Ādam. Certainly and there can be no possible doubt that this eternal wisdom and this eternal justice simply cannot exist without the hereafter, just like morning cannot be without the sun. They can under no circumstances allow the continuation of a potentially endless, severe oppression. Nor can they allow the unfairness, injustice and pointlessness entailed in considering the most tyrannical oppressor at his death to be equal to those he has oppressed at their deaths. Thus do the Names, al-Ḥakīm (the Wise), al-Ḥākam (the Judicious Apportioner), al-‘Adl (the Equitable) and al-‘Ādil (the Just) answer our question conclusively.” (The Staff of Moses p.21)
This statement states that since the creation of humanity, the manifestation of the Names Adl and Adil of the Almighty Allah is as evident as the existence of the sun, and can be proved by showing examples of cruel tribes destroyed in the past. He stresses that some of the oppressors will be punished more severely in the Hereafter, even if they are not punished in this world.
“The existence and severe torment of hell is not the contradictory of the existence of the unlimited mercy, true justice and unwasteful and finely balanced wisdom. Rather, it is the mercy, justice and wisdom themselves that necessitate its existence. For just as the punishment of a tyrant who has transgressed against the rights of thousands of innocents, and the killing of a beast that has ripped apart hundreds of downtrodden animals are both acts of justice containing a thousand mercies for the victims. And just as forgiving that oppressor and freeing that beast constitute hundreds of acts of mercilessness.”(The Staff of Moses p.41)
From this statement, it is understood that the existence of hell is not contrary to justice, but that the punishments that do not fit in the world are punished with hell and justice is provided for thousands of innocent and oppressed people. The following statements emphasize that even if the oppressor dies as oppressor and the oppressed die as oppressed, the Divine justice will be manifested in the Supreme Court.
“The short life of this world and the very short human lifespan and this temporary, transient earth [are too small to] accommodate the sublimity of the kingdom of that Beginninglessly Eternal Ruler (Al-Ḥakīmu’l-Azalī) and the eternality of His rulership.” (The Staff of Moses p.196) “The oppressor remains in his might and the oppressed remains in his humiliation, and they depart from this world. That is to say, the matter must be postponed to a supreme court of justice.” (Dhulfiqar p.8)
In these statements, the wisdom of creation of hell is explained in more detail. It is stated that the great tyrants and rebels died without punishment in this world and went to the Hereafter in well being and pleasure and without any punishment in this world. The oppressed, on the other hand, died in a lot of pain and trouble. As a reason, it has been suggested that the complete justice of the Almighty Allah does not fit into this short worldly life and therefore their case is left to the Supreme Court.
A total of 382 results were found after screening with the keyword “muhabbah” for the value of “love”. Bediuzzaman Said Nursi’s statements about the value of “love” have been found in many of his works. However, it is seen that he directly deals with love in his books “The Words and The Flashes”.
“Man has, with respect to the quiddity of his all-embracingness, a relationship with the majority of existent beings, and the capacity for illimitable love has been incorporated into his all-embracing quiddity. It is thus that man harbours a love for all existent beings. He loves the vast world just as he loves his own house. He loves eternal Paradise just as he loves his own garden. However, the creatures that he loves do not stay long [here], but they leave [this world]. Man endures ceaseless pain due to seperation. His illimitable love causes limitless spiritual pain. It is merely his error and flaw that causes him to suffer this very pain. Since the capacity in man’s heart for endless love was only bestowed upon him so that he could direct it towards the One Who owns a limitlessly eternal beauty. Yet man errs by misusing it and directs it towards ephemeral creatures, therefore suffering the consequences of his own fault in the pain of separation.” (The Flashes,2011:11)
In these statements, it is explained that instead of consuming the eternal love that settles in the nature of human beings, that love must be directed to Allah, Who is ever-abiding and worthy of endless love. If one gives all of this eternal love to the temporary, transient beings, he will be saddened when those beings die or come to an end; and he is himself responsible for it.
“My soul, if you have sense, gather together all those loves and give them to their true owner; be saved from those calamities. These infinite loves are particular to the One Who possesses infinite perfection and beauty. When you give it to its true owner, you will be able to love everything without distress in His name and as His mirrors. That means this love should not be spent directly on the universe. Otherwise, while being a delicious bounty, it becomes a grievous affliction.” (Words p.149) “Love this world and the creatures in it as pointing to a meaning beyond themselves, like a word. Do not love them just for themselves. Say, “How beautifully they are made.” Do not say, “How beautiful they are.” Allow no opportunity to other loves to enter into your inner heart.” (Words, 2010:309)
It is stated in these statements that we should spend the eternal love given to us for its true owner, Allah, and that if we are to love transient good beings, we must love them by thinking of their true owner. If the true owner is forgotten and love is directed only to the transient beauty, the destruction of that transient will lead him to sorrow and sadness. Below is a story about these statements:
“For example, if a mighty king were to bestow an apple on you, there would be two loves for that apple and two pleasures in it. The first of these is that the apple would be loved because it is an apple, and there would be a pleasure peculiar to and to the extent of the apple. This love does not concern the king. On the contrary, the man who puts the apple to his mouth and eats it in the king’s presence loves the apple itself and his own soul rather than the king. It sometimes happens that the king is not pleased with that love which nourishes the instinctual soul; in fact, he detests it. Moreover, the pleasure that the apple gives is very limited and passes quickly. After the apple is eaten it is gone, only regret remains. As for the second love, it is for the royal favour that is demonstrated by means of the apple. One who holds the apple precious as if it were the sample and embodiment of a royal favour shows that he loves his king. Moreover, the pleasure of the fruit, which is a sort of container for the favour, is such that it is far greater than the pleasure obtained from a thousand apples. This pleasure, then, is the essence of thankfulness. This love is respectful love for the king.” (Words,2010:309)
A total of 68 results were found after screening with the keyword “sidk” for the value of “honesty”. Bediuzzaman Said Nursi’s expressions of “honesty” were found in many of his works. However, it is seen that he directly deals with the subject of honesty in his works “The Words, Isharatu’l-I‘jaz, The Letters 2”.
It is the seriousness and honesty that stick the lofty morality and exalted character to the truth. If the honesty is abandoned and the lying comes in, that man becomes a plaything of people just like the leaves do in front of winds.” (Isharatu’l-I‘jaz p 157) “Indeed, just as it was lying that brought Musaylima to the lowest of the low, so it was truthfulness and right which raised Muhammad the Trustworthy to the highest of the high.” (Words p.159). “So the truthfulness and trust of that person (pbuh) have become the greatest evidence to his cause of messengership.” (İşârâtü’l-İ‘câz p.158). “One grain of truth consumes a stack of lies. One grain of reality is superior to a stack of illusions. Everything you say should be true, but it is not right to say everything true.” (Letters 2, 2011:228).
In these statements, it is explained that honesty continues to exist with superior temperament and good morality, and that the reason why our Lord (pbuh) is the most superior among the people and that one of the proofs to his prophecy is honesty, and the opposite is the reason why Museyleme is the lowest of the following. At this point, it is emphasized that one line outranks thousands of lies. In the following statement, the benefits of honesty are mentioned.
“The way is twofold: either silence, for truthfulness does not demand that one says everything that is true; or honesty, for truthfulness is the basis of Islam and a characteristic of belief; indeed, belief is truthfulness and its main sort. [Truthfulness] is the bond of all perfections; and the life of high morals; and the root binding things to reality; and the manifestation of truth on the tongue. It is the pivot of man’s development and the order of the Islamic world; and it is what conveys man with the speed of lightning down the road of progress to the ka‘ba of perfections; and it raises the poorest and dullest person higher than a sultan; and it made the Companions of the Prophet (asw) superior to all others; and it raised up our Master Muhammad al-Hāshimī (asw) to the loftiest peak of humanity.” (Isharatu’l-I‘jaz, 2014:87)
A total of 21 results were found after screening with the keyword “iqtisad” for the value of “economy”. Bediuzzaman Said Nursi’s statements regarding the value of “economy” were found in many of his works. However, it is seen that he directly deals with “economy” (iqtisad) in his book “The Staff of Moses”.
“Yes, the all-embracing wisdom in the universe, that is part of the supreme manifestation of the Name ‘the Wise’ (Al-Ḥakīm), pivots around providence and not being wasteful, and commands us to be provident. (…) Now, understand from this that justice (‘adālah), providence (iqtiṣad) and cleanliness (naẓāfah), which are each Qur’ānic realities and Islāmic laws, are fundamental precepts of human life. And discern just how connected the Qur’ānic rulings are with the universe, how they have sent their roots out to the universe and encompassed it, and that ruining of those realities is as impossible as ruining of the universe and the deformation of its form.” (The Staff of Moses, 2019:153)
From these statements, it is explained that there is not the slightest waste in the operation of the universe, that the wasted people act contrary to the nature of the universe, and even in the Qur’an, people are commanded and banned from waste. In the following statements, it was explained that God wanted to thank God for the blessings he gave us, and that waste was the opposite of thankfulness, and that the frugality had many material and moral benefits. He gave an example of this by telling an incident he had experienced from his own life.
“The Compassionate Creator (Al-Khāliqu’rRaḥīm) wishes for gratitude in return for the blessings that He has given to mankind. Wastefulness (isrāf) on the other hand is quite the opposite of gratitude (shukr), and it constitutes a form of belittlement towards those blessings that is full of losses whereas frugality is a profitable form of respect towards those blessings. Yes, frugality carries the meaning of gratitude, and of respect for the Divine mercy contained in [His] blessings, and categorically a means of [the acquisition of] abundance (barakah), and like a diet, a cause of bodily health, and a cause of dignity that saves man from the humiliation of spiritual begging, and a powerful means [enabling one] to feel the pleasures contained in those blessings, and to taste the pleasures in blessings that superficially appear not to be delicious – but because wastefulness conflicts with the aforementioned wisdoms, it has unwholesome results.” (The Staff of Moses,2019:244)
“In some cases my friends and I have found ten times the [usual] abundance by means of frugality. So much so that, nine years ago, certain tribal leaders who were exiled with me in Burdur tried to push me to accept their zakāt in order that I do not fall into humiliation, poverty and misery because of a lack of money. To those rich leaders I said, ‘it is true that I have very little money, but I am frugal, and I am habituated to being satisfied [with little]. I am richer than you all!’ I refused this offer of theirs that they had pressed on me so insistently and repeatedly. Now, worthy of notice is the fact that some of those who had offered their zakāt to me had run into debts two years later because of their lack of frugality. All praise be to Allāh (lillāhi’l-ḥamd), that small amount of money sufficed me by the spiritual blessing of frugality for seven years after [their offer]. (…) Yes, whoever does not practice frugality is a candidate to land in humiliation, in spiritual begging, and in misery.” (The Staff of Moses,2019:247)
A total of 391 results were found after screening with the keyword “science (‘ilm)” for the value of “being scientific”. Bediuzzaman Said Nursi’s statements on the value of “being scientific” have been found in many of his works. However, it is seen that he directly deals with the subject of in The Words, The Letters 1, The Letters 2, The Rays 1, The Rays 2, The Staff of Moses.
“In the future, in place of weapons, the immaterial, moral swords of true civilization, material progress, and truth and justice will defeat and scatter the enemies.” (The Letters 2, p.175) “For all the physical sciences demonstrate such an order and perfection in the fields they study in accordance with their comprehensive laws that the intellect can find nothing more perfect. For example, sciences such as anatomy in medicine, the science of the solar system in astronomy, and botany and biology, all demonstrate the miracles of power and the wisdom of the All Glorious Maker in the order in their own particular fields, and the truth of the verse, ‘Who makes most excellent everything that He creates.’” (The Letters 2, 2011:176-177)
In these statements, it is explained that in the future, instead of weapons, intelligence, science and science will be ruled and by pointing to the perfection of what each science examines in its field of interest, it proves that God creates everything beautifully. In the following statements, it is emphasized that human beings come to this world in order to be perfected by learning science (‘ilm), so that they should rise to the degree of a true believer as a true believer and to know and believe in Allah.
“And of all the sciences (‘ilm) and instances of knowing (ma‘rifah) and perfections of human beings, the greatest one is faith (īmān).” (The Staff of Moses s.266). “That is, human beings came to this world to reach perfection by means of science (‘ilm) and prayer (du‘ā).” (The Rays 1 p.173) “With the witnessing of the people of mystical unveiling of the graves and the numerous incidents, some of the eager and serious students who passed away at the time of learning science (‘ilm) see themselves as alive, like the martyrs, and engaged in their own lessons. (The Rays 2, 2016:138)
“The light of the conscience is the true religious sciences. The light of the mind is the contemporary sciences. With the unity of the two, the reality reveals. With these two wings, the endeavor of a student flies high. When they are apart, fanaticism is born from the former; suspicion and deception are born from the latter.” (The Letters 2 p.152) “Undigested science (‘ilm) should not be imparted to others.” (The Words p.331) “Similarly, after entering the stomach of the mind, the matters of faith that come through science (‘ilm) are absorbed by the spirit, heart, inner heart, soul, and other subtle faculties; each receives its share according to its degree. If they do not receive their share, faith is deficient.”(The Letters 1,2011:157)
In these statements, it was stated that both religious and scientific sciences should be learned together and each of them was fruitless on their own. Whatever the teacher will teach he must have gained it first himself; and it is explained that the learning needs to reach first to the mind, and then to the heart, soul, and so on. Otherwise the learned things will be incomplete.
In line with all these findings, it was seen that the Risale-i Nur, which was written by Imam Bediüzzaman Said Nursi (r.a.), had many direct and indirect expressions about values education. However, in the study using descriptive analysis method, 28 quotations were made from only directly related expressions especially for values education in primary school. The 32 codes obtained from these data were classified according to the determined 6 values and the methods used in the Risale-i Nur were determined for the determined codes. The code table summarizing the findings is shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Code Table of Values
|Patience||1. The hero of patience Prophet Ayyub (asw) (Story)|
|2. Patience for illnesses is atonement for sins and also bring some rewards (Explanation)|
|3. Insane Commander (Story)|
|4. Correct use of the power of patience (Explanation)|
|5. Three types of patience (Classification)|
|Justice||1. Allah, Who is the Owner of the greatest justice, will not leave the oppressors unpunished (Proof)|
|2. The punishment of some of the oppressors remains in the hereafter (Explanation)|
|3. Postponement of major crimes to supreme courts (Sampling)|
|4. The necessity of hell and its being not a contradiction to justice (Explanation)|
|5. The existence of the Supreme Court of Justice (Proof)|
|Love (Muhabbat)||1. The existence of an infinite sense of love in human nature (Sampling)|
|2.If eternal love is given to transient things, it gives grief and sorrow when those things disappear (Explanation)|
|3. An apple sent from a great sultan as a gift (Story)|
|Honesty (Sidk)||1. Honesty’s keeping the good morality and high character alive (Description)|
|2. Honesty of Prophet Muhammad (asw) (Sampling)|
|3. The effect of honesty on human degree – Prophet Muhammed and Musaylama (Comparison)|
|4. The difference between truth and lie (Comparison)|
|5. The benefits of honesty (Sampling)|
|Economy (Iqtisad)||1. Management of the universe on iqtisad and economy (Description)|
|2. The person who wastes act against the nature of the universe (Explanation)|
|3. Allah’s command of economy (Explanation)|
|4. Allah’s demanding our thankfulness in return for His blessing to us, and waste’s being the opposite of thankfulness (Explanation)|
|5. Iqtisad’s having many financial and spiritual benefits to people (Sampling)|
|6. An event experienced by Bediuzzaman related to the iqtisad (True Story)|
|Being Scientific (‘Ilm)||1. The mind, knowledge and science will rule the future instead of weapons (Explanation)|
|2. Each science’s pointing to Allah (Sampling)|
|3. The purpose of human coming to this world is to become perfect by learning ilm (Explanation)|
|4. Of all the sciences (‘ilm) the greatest one is knowing Allah (ma‘rifah) and faith (īmān) (Explanation)|
|5. The necessity of learning positive sciences and religious sciences together (Explanation)|
|6. Something to be taught needs to be first gained by the teacher (Explanation)|
|7. It would be a deficiency if faculties like heart and spirit do not get their share from the knowledge the mind get (Explanation)|