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المقادير والموازين في الكون من منظور القرآن والعلوم في رسائل النور

إدريس توزون

المستخلص

لقد ذُكرتْ في بعض الآيات القرآنية أن الله خلق الخلق والحوادث بمقدار. فثبَّت العلم هذه الآيات القرآنية بإظهار أنه كل شيء من الذرة إلى المجرة وكل حادث يحدث في هذا الكون إلا وله  مقدار معلوم. فتهدف هذه الورقة توضيح هذا الموضوع من خلال المقادير في خلق الكون من الانفجار العظيم والمقادير بين النجوم والمقدار في المطر والمقادير في الحيوانات والنباتات والمقادير في المجتمعات الإنسانية والمقدار في جسم الإنسان.

 الكلمات المفتاحية: القرآن، العلوم، المقدار، الميزان.

MEASURES AND BALANCES IN THE UNIVERSE THROUGH THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE QUR’AN AND SCIENCE IN RISALE-I NUR

Idris Tüzün
Harran University, Theology Faculty

Abstract

            In some verses of the Qur’an, It is mentioned that Allah creates every creature and incident in measure. Science proves these verses of the Qur’an by showing that from atoms to stars everything and every incident happen in certain measures. This article explains this topic through measures in the creation of the universe through Big Bang, measures between stars, measure in rain, measures in animals and plants, measures in human societies and measure in human body.

Keywords: The Qur’an, Science, Measure, Balance.

Notice:

The Thirtieth Flash of The Flashes that Imam Bediuzzaman Bediuzzaman Said Nursi authored is the epistle named “Asmau’l-Sitta”. In this epistle Imam Nursi expounds the six Names of Allah, which are “Al-Quddus, Al-‘Adl, Al-Hakam, Al-Fard, Al-Hayy, Al-Qayyum”. The second Name that is explained is the Name A’Adl (in the Second Subtle-point of the Thirtieth Flash). We have detailly expounded this three-page epistle and published it as a book named “The Balances in the Universe and Allah”.

An article titled “The Measure and Balance in the Universe from the Perspective of Qur’an and Science”, which is a summary of the book’s third edition, was presented as a paper at the First International Creation Congress in the light of Sciences at the Şanlıurfa Harran University on November 30th-December 2nd 2017. The article below is the same paper presented in the congress with some additional parts from the Name Al-‘Adl at the beginnings of chapters.

Introduction

Qur’an is the biggest miracle among many others of our Prophet (sav). He said: “Every prophet has been given miracles (by Allah) to make people believe in. And my miracle is Qur’an which is revealed to me by Allah. Therefore I believe I will have the most followers on the Day of Judgment.”[1]

Only the people who lived on that timeline has witnessed the miracles of past prophets. Their miracles has ended with their deaths. However even though our prophet has passed away, miracles of the Qur’an will stay until the day of reckoning. That’s why his followers will outnumber the ones of other prophets.

Qur’an is a miracle in terms of declamation and fluency. But not only that, it has lots of other miraculous aspects.

One of those aspects is that it speaks of the secrects about the universe. Nowadays with science improving, this can be seen more clearly. Because the more science turns these secrets into facts, the more those facts became explanations for the verses about universe. For example its expressed that Allah created every being on certain quantities, measures, and balance in different parts of the Qur’an. Some of those verses are as follows:

            “With Him, everything is by measure.” (quran,13/8) “God has set a measure to all things.” (quran,65/3), “…(He) created everything and determined its measure.” (quran,25/2), “Everything We created is precisely measured. (quran,54/49), “We spread the earth, and placed stabilizers in it, and in it We grew all things in proper measure. ( quran,15/19), “If God were to increase the provision to His servants, they would transgress on earth; but He sends down in precise measure whatever He wills.” ( quran,42/27)

Science proves these verses of the Qur’an by showing that from atoms to stars everything has certain measures in their creations. In this article we want to dwell on these two similarities between Qur’an and science.

1.     Stability of the Big Bang

On several verses of Qur’an, people are heeded to the creation of the sky and the earth and wanted to think of it. For example in a verse it is said: And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth” (quran,30/22)

We mentioned the verse “Everything We created is precisely measured.”  (quran,54/8) earlier. According to this verse, it’s not wrong to say everything, little or big, even the whole universe is created on a measure. Explanations made by scientist supports this fact shown as here:

Until the 20th century it was believed that the universe was only consisted of the Milky Way. Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) found out that many other galaxies just like ours existed by using the biggest telescope available at that time in California.  He announced this important discovery in 1929. Hubble who specialized on galaxies, made another shocking discovery whixch was that these galaxies were drifting apart from each other. The further the galaxies were, the faster they were moving away. And this movement wasn’t random but in fact it was moving in a way which is known as Hubble Diagram. The curve of this catenary is called the Hubble constant.

This showed that galaxies were much closer to each other once. And if we go further in the past they did not even exist until a big bang. Hubble’s discovery caused many disputes among scientists. Some of them denied these allegations. But later, studies and experiments showed that in fact universe arose from a big bang. This confuted the stationary universe theory of atherist philosophers and showed that the religious claims of universe being created out of nothing were true. At the present time atheists, even if they don’t believe in god, agree that big bang is not a theory but a proven fact. ( Steven Weinberg, 1996, 16-43; Stephen Hawking 2012,  50, 117-136.)

Scientists discovered marvellous measures and balances both during and after the Big Bang. These measures and balances proves right the statements of Qur’an that we mentioned earlier in the above. For example scientists say that there is a sensitive balance between the “expansive force” of the explosion and “attraction force” which blocks expansion by pulling. By the words of cosmology professor Paul Davies: “Careful measurement puts the rate of expansion very close to a critical value at which the universe will just escape its own gravity and expand for ever. A little slower, and the cosmos would collapse, a little faster and the cosmic material would have long ago completely dispersed. It is interesting to ask precisely how delicately the rate of expansion has been ‘fine-tuned’ to fall on this narrow dividing line between two catastrophes. If at time 1 s (by which time the pattern of expansion was already firmly established) the expansion rate had differed from its actual value by more than 10-18, it would have been sufficient to throw the delicate balance out. The explosive vigour of the universe is thus matched with almost unbelievable accuracy to its gravitaing power. The big bang was not, evidently, any old bang, but an explosion of exquisitely arranged magnitude.  (Paul Davies, 1984, 184)( ;, Paul Davies, 1983, 179 )

            Paul Davies brought attention to another subject in his book The Mind of God by saying: “(During the big bang) If the masses of the electron and proton were normally a little more than the mass of a neutron, then the result would be in the disastrous direction. In the universe, all hydrogen atoms would dissociate in the formation of neutrons and neutrinos. The sun would be out of nuclear fuel and would shrink until it dissappears.

            As we said before Qur’an states that Allah created everything acocrding to a measure and amount. It has been found out that there is marvellous measures and balances in the creation of universe by scientists. Hence as well as the big bang reveals the existance of Allah, foundings of the measures and balances in creation of the universe is proves right the statements of the Qur’an.

2.     Stars, the Sun, and the Planets

It says The sun and the moon move according to plan.” ( En’am, 96, 5) in Qur’an. Glossators say that “hesap” word is in its plural form which indicates the sun and the moon is created on precise calculations and measurements. We only want to dwell on one of these calculations and measurements.

Masses have an attraction force which is called gravitational force. Any released object falls on the ground and rivers flow downwards because of this atraction force.

Attraction force is directly proportional with the mass and inversely proportioanl with the distance between masses. Which means attraction force increases with the mass and decreases with the distant between the masses. Thats why there is a slight difference when measuring weight by the sea where it is closer to Earth’s centre and on a high mountain. Or a weight measurement can be different on Earth and on the moon.

Our earth pulls the moon just like it is pulling everything on it. But it is not strong enough to crash it into earth because the moon is approximately 382.000 kilometres away. Also the moon travels around the world at a speed of 3660 kilometres per hour. (This figure is pretty high if we consider that jet planes travel at a speed of 2500 kilometres per hour.) It’s velocity gives the moon a centrifugal force. This centrifugal force pushes the moon to outer space while earth pulls it back. Neither the moon crashes the earth nor it flies out of orbit due to complete balance between these two forces. If the gravitaional force of the earth was a little more powerful the moon would crash earth. And if the centrifugal force of the moon was a little more powerful the moon would fly out to space.

            Big or small, every globe in the universe has this –gravitational and centrifugal force- like earth and the moon. For example the sun pulls world with its gravitational force. The world pushes itself back with its centrifugal force. Owing to this balance between these two forces, the world stays in a certain distance towards the sun and travels 30 kilometres per hour around it. Increase or decrease on one of these forces would cause the world either to crash into sun or to fly out of orbit.

Other planets have the same connection wtih the sun too. But gravitational force applied by the sun and their centrifugal force varies due to the differences in masses, spinning velocities,  and distances to sun of each planet. (Paul Davies, 52)

There is a gravitational force between every planet in the system just as the sun and the planets. Of course the force that planets apply to each other is not as powerful as the sun’s gravitational force. But they still affect each other. For example the biggest plannet on the solar system is Jupiter. It is thousand times bigger than the earth and it has thirteen moons. Jupiter pulls earth and planets as well as its moons. Also it has an important role in preserving the life on earth. With its strong gravitational force, Jupiter throws every comet and astroid that gets in the solar system out of their orbit or destroys them by pulling them into itself. If not for Jupiter, the life on earth would have been destroyed by comets and astreoids constantly crashing into earth.[2]

The gravitational force between the sun and the planets form a steady unity  and integrity in solar system. Some scientists say that some kind of designing must have been done to form the balance of the solar system. Some scientists also say “The solar system is literally a system and not just a random group of planets.”

As a matter of fact same balancing action in the solar system exists between every star and the centre of the milkyway galaxy. Moreover this can be said for every star and galaxy in the space. By stabilizing gravitational force and centrifugal force, an organic bond is built between masses.

Order of these celestial bodies directly indicates the existance of Allah. When these enormous system is observed, it can be clearly understood that this system is set accordingly to a brilliant plan and there needs to be someone with higher knowledge, conscious, and power behind this plan. It is not possible for this marvellous system to be constituted coincidentally. Because coincidences happen once or twice not millions of times. The ones that consistently happens millions of times does not count as coincidents. Sayin that it is, would only be an assumption and not an evidence.

Even though gravitational force might seem as the source of constructing a unity by establishing some sort of a connection between stars. In reality, however, infinite knowledge, will, and the power of Allah is behind all these.  Gravitational force is the cause but the real operative is the divine power.

3.     Fine Tuning in the Rain

As is known, water evaporates from oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, and earth. Evaporated water densifies and form clouds. These clouds gets distributed to different areas via wind and brought back to earth as rain.

Well how much water gets evaporated and rains back to us? Qu’an’s words matches up with science on this subject.

On some verses it is expressed that it rains in a certain quantity: He who sends down water from the sky in due proportion; and so We revive thereby a dead land. Thus you will be brought out.” (quran,43/11)

            “And We sent down water from the sky in proper quantity, and settled it in the ground, and We are able to take it away.” (quran.23/18)

Our prophet (sav) has said: “It doesn’t rain more one year than another. But Allah makes use of those rains as he wishes. (In some places it rains more than others.) Every inch of the wind that comes and goes, follows an order and regulation.” (İmam Suyutî, 1993, 71)about this subject.

Scientists did some researchs on how much water evaporates and rains during water cycle and found fitting results to what our prophet has said. According to the scientists, water vapour in the atmosphere weighs ordinarily 13×1012 tons. This is an unchangeble stable number. It drops down when it rains but immediately gets compensated with evaporation. Like so the number stays same. Scientist found out that on average 16 million tons of water evaporates per second.

Do you wonder how much it rains? Studies show that it rains 16 million tons per second which is the same amount of evaporating water. In a year this number goes up to 505 million times one million tons. 22 percent of 13,4 x 1020 kilocalories of thermal energy that comes from sun goes to evaporation. ( Taşkın Tuna, 1984, 30-31)

Foundings of the scientists fits the words of Qur’an and our prophet.

Examples we gave until here shows that the name Adl (Just) of Allah and also the prophecies of Qur’an and sunnah which goes 1400 years back correspond to the findings of scientific researches of today.

4.     Balance Among Livings and the Distubance of the Balance

Balance Among Livings

All kinds of plants and animals tend to breed, reproduce, and spread around the world. However none of them has ever been seen to overbreed and invade the world. For example, some fish in the sea, spawn thousands and millions of eggs.  It is established that a couple of rats can breed up to 500 rats in one year and 20 million in three years. Based on these facts, oceans should be filled up with fish and the ground would be crawling with rats whereas it is not the case. Because Allah prevents them from overpopulating by encountering them with other animals. Thus fish and rats didn’t fill up the world more than necessary. Their births, lives, and deaths has always been persisted on balanced. This situation of rats and fish, is applicable to every (eco-system) living being.

Millions of species whose births, lives, and deaths differ form each other, interdependantly live together. They all tend to breed. There are other living creatures, however, that prevent them from overbreeding.

Scientists have studied the creatures which interact and nourish with each other, and called it the food chain. For instance, crickets eat herbs, frogs eat crickets, snakes eat frogs, and eagles eat snakes. Every one of them becomes the daily meal of another. They also maintain the balance by preventing each other from overbreeding. This, what scientists call ecological balance, is not the natural selection, but it is the divine balance that has been constituted among livings by Allah. If there wasn’t a creator with endless knowledge and power who is watching, handling, balancing them every second, then this wondrous balance between livings that has lasted for centuries would be disrupted, the world of living would be chaos, and then it would have perished in no time.

Disturbance of the Balance

Corruption has appeared on land and sea, because of what people’s hands have earned, in order to make them taste some of what they have done, so that they might return.” (Rum, 41)

There is an ecological balance that has been constituted by Allah in the world of livings. However this balance may be disrupted if the humans intervene.

For the last century, some species have extincted because of humans killing them or polluting the environment. Extinction of these species caused other livings which are interacting with them to extinct as well, and hence, the disturbance of the balance. In other words, humans breaking a link of the food chain results the balance among livings to be disrupted.

One of the reasons for the disturbance of the ecological balance is changing the habitat of a specie. By the development of transportation in the 20th century, there has been an increasing mobility across the world. People started to travel for different reasons such as trading, education, and entertainment. During these travels, people brought different plants and animals with them. Some of these replaced plants and animals disrupted the ecological balance of the places they were brought. Ther are lots of examples on this subject which we will be examining two of them.

            Australia and Cactus

            Around 1900s, an immigrant brought a cactus to Australia. After being planted, this cactus spread so fast that it wasn’t long before it took up 4 million hectares of land. This situation made it difficult for both citizens and villagers. All the crops gone bad and its impact on farming was very big. Australians couldn’t find a solution to stop the rapid expansion of this plant. Australia was up against the invasion of this unstoppable foreign army of plants.

            Thanks to their wide research around different parts of the world, insect specialists found a bug that only lives by eating the leaves of this plant. This bug breeding very fast. Also there was no other bug in Australia, that was hostile towards it. It didn’t take long to stop the expansion of the aforementioned cactus. Then breeding of the bug itself slowed down. And one day there was just enough bugs left to stop the constant expansion of the plant. (Cressy Morrison, 1992, 91)

            Rabbit Disaster in Australia

            Rabbits can be found in every continent. They are never seen to upset the natural balance by overbreeding. But it is a different story for Australia.

An English man who settled in Australia around 1859, brough two dozens of rabbits with him. These rabbits ran away and then started to breed rapidlty since there was no other animal to stop them. The number of the rabbits went up to ten thousands from two dozens in a few years. Their increasing speed was estimated to be 10-15 kilometers in the woods and 130 kilometers on the level ground. When the people couldn’t handle the harm the rabbits are causing, they asked for help from the government. By the year 1900, rabbits were all over the continent even though they were being hunt down everywhere. These rabbits went down in history as the fastest mammal to cover an area. They started to use poison by 1950s when nothing else seem to work. With this solution the number of rabbits brought down from 600 million to 100 million.

            The war against rabbits in Australia is still a problem that is trying to be solved and the rabbits are trying to be kept under control. [3]

            From what we said until here we can conclude that every living tend to breed and spread. Allah, however, prevents them from breeding unrestrained with other livings he put before them. Thus a balance and order can be provided among living. Humans can sometimes disrupt this balance and order with their unconcious actions.

5.  Balance in Men and Women Proportions in Society

It is said in the Qur’an:

He creates whatever He wills. He grants daughters to whomever He wills, and He grants sons to whomever He wills. Or He combines them together, males and females; and He renders whomever He wills sterile. He is Knowledgeable and Capable.”  (quran,42/49-50)

God knows what every female bears, and every increase and decrease of the wombs. With Him, everything is by measure.” (quran.13/8)

When especially paid attention to the second verse, you will se that it is mentioned that every child, whether it is a boy or a girl, is created in a certain quantity. The data which is provided by science confirms this verse.

Population researches shows that there is a wondrous balance in men-women ratio in cities, counties, and the whole world. According to these studies, 100 girls are being born in return for every 105 boys. Both genders are balanced by the age 4 due to male infant deaths are higher. ( Erol Tümertekin.2015, 272.)

When the population of the society is observed, it can be seen that number of males and females is also in balance. These situation applies to the ratio of male-female numbers of the world as well as the countries. The world population is roughly %50,5 male and %49,5 female.

The men-women ratio of population can sometimes be unbalanced due to reasons such as war, epidemics, and migration. However with time, this ratio is balanced by itself if not interfered.

Imbalance in Population and Social Problems

As we mentioned before, it can be seen that birth and death ratio of men and women in every society across the cities, countries, and the world is equal, there is a balance between both genders and thus the humanity lives a balanced life in terms of population. This measure and balance shows us that there is someone planning the births and deaths. This plan obviously is not a coincidence, rather, it is a work of a mighty creator with knowledge, will, and power who knows and sees everything at any moment.

There are some times when the ratio of men and women can change because of social and economic conditions (e.g. war) and thus the balance between men and women can be disrupted. Changes that happen by themselves generally don’t cause a problem and resolved with time. However the interference of the countries which are concerned about overpopulation, caused many social problems and deterioation of the measure and balance that is applied by the mighty creator.

In India and China, a single child policy has been followed for a long time and married couples are forbidden to have more than one child. Thereby families usually want a boy, they killed their girls before or after the birth. This situation inevitably resulted in an imbalance in female and male proportions in both countries. The report named “The Lesser Child: The Girl in India”, which was published by UNIXF in 1990, states that the number of girls who die each year in India is 300,000 more than that of men. The United Nations reports that there are 133 single men in India for every 100 single women. In countries such as India where sex is determined before birth, the male ratio is significantly higher. In China, the situation is no different. According to the figures released by the Chinese government in 1995, there were 10 million people in their thirties who could not marry because they could not find a match. Researchers states that the number of men who can not find a match will be doubled in the first decade of the 21st century. (Erol Tümertekin,2015- 279)

To put it simply, what we have told so far reveals that there is a balance in the proportion of women and men in the societies, and that interventions against the nature disrupt the balance in the population and cause many social problems.

6.     Measure and Balance in the Human Body

In some verses it is stated that Allah created beings, and that he created them according to certain measures. For example in a verse, it is said that “He who creates and regulates. He who measures and guides.” (quranç87/2-3) This verse shows that all beings, especially plants and animals, are created according to certain measures and quantities. Amongst these beings humans are created in the most beautiful way. Many great measures are favoured in their creation. In a verse, it is said O man! What deluded you concerning your Lord, the Most Generous? He Who created you, and formed you, and proportioned you? In whatever shape He willed, He assembled you”. (quran.82/6-8)

 “Adeleke” (عدلك) word in the verse is defined by glossators as “decent, measured, and equable body and limbs, harmony and balance of the limbs”. Ibn Abbas said “He made his waist straight, upright and balanced, he did not curve it like some animals”. (Hamdi Yazır,  51) The glossator Mukatil also said “Allah gave two eyes, two ears, two hands, and two feet to man and he gave it in a complete balance and proportion. For example, one of the two hands isn’t longer than the other, or one of the two eyes is not created larger than the other.” ( Fahrettin Razî,, 1995,  81)

Glossators’ comments being based on symmetry is appropriate to the meaning of the verse. In my opinion, however, the meaning of the verse is not limited to those mentioned only. There are many balances and measures in the human body beyond symmetry. It seems more reasonable that the verse refers to the measures and balances of every aspect of man, material or spiritual. Some examples are given below.

Psychologists have shown with the intelligence tests that the intelligence in society is distributed according to a certain measure. As stated in these studies, approximately two-thirds (68%) of people are in the range of 85 to 115 IQ. This area is called normal intelligence. 13% that is between 70 and 85 are close to idiocy, and 13% that is between 115 and 130 are close to superior intelligence. 95% of people are in the 70-130 IQ range. The rate of those who are retarded and those who are gifted is the same and about 2% of the population. (Rod Plotnik, 288.)

            A similar tendency is observed in people’s height as well as the distribution of the intelligence in society. If the heights of a group from the same age and gender are to be measured, it is seen that they are in a row from the shortest to the tallest. However, the interesting point is that the majority of them are of medium height and those who are too short and too tall are in the minority. ( Feriha Baymur,1978.243)

There is also a perfect balance in the work of organs in the human body. For example, when we are hungry, the sugar in the blood drops and the feeling of hunger arises. When we eat the food and we are full, the feeling of need for food is stopped. A similar activity occurs in red blood cells. When red blood cells in the blood are reduced, the marrows are activated and produce red blood cells. When the red blood cells reach a certain amount, the production in the marrow is stopped.

50 million cells on average die every second in the human body, and new ones are produced to replace them. Thanks to the balanced organisation of this heavy traffic, our life continues in tranquility. If new cells do not form at the same rate corresponding to continuous cell loss or excessive cell production occurs, the human body is impaired, it becomes sick and endangered. For example, cancer is only one of the most dangerous diseases that result from excessive, uneven growth of cells.

The need for eating and the production of red blood cells is almost identical to all activities in the body. When there is any deficiency in the body, the organism is activated and the activity is stopped when the need is provided.

            CONCLUSION

            At the beginning of our article, we mentioned the verse “There is not a thing but with Us are its stores, and We send it down only in precise measure.” ( quran,12/21) and some other similar verses. The explanations that we gave from the science until this point confirm the Qur’an by showing that there are measurements and balances everywhere from a cell to the Milky Way galaxy. To sum up the explanations we gave until here:

  • The universe was created with a great explosion and then began to expand with tremendous speed. During this expansion, scientists have determined that there is a great measure and balance between the rate of expansion and gravitational force.
  • With the balance created between the gravitational force and the centrifugal force, the Moon and Earth, the Sun with the Earth, the planets with the Sun, the solar system and the galaxy, our galaxy and other galaxies have formed a unity. A slight change in these balances will result in huge changes in the whole universe.
  • Approximately 16 million tons of water evaporate just as 16 million tons of water rains down every day in the world; Hence, tons of salt water is transformed into fresh water so that life on earth can continue.
  • All plants and animals in the world have been given a tendency to breed and spread. However other creatures are placed to stop them from overbreeding so that an ecological balance can be obtained. From time to time, it is can be seen that people knowingly or unknowingly disrupt this ecological balance.
  • Research shows that there is a balance in the proportion of women and men in the society. It is seen that the number of men and women is equal in terms of birth and death, provided that people do not intervene.
  • When the heights and intelligence of the individuals are examined, it is seen that the height and intelligence are distributed according to certain measures in the society.
  • When the human, animal and plant bodies are examined, it is seen that there is a symmetrical structure in all of them, and that these structures are applicable to the golden ratio.
  • A balance in decrease and increase can be observed in the cells, smallest units of the body, such as red and white blood cells. Disruption of this balance in decrease and increase of the cells, endangers the human life.

How did these measurements and balances that science presented us from cells to the whole universe, occur in every place and every time?

This question is answered by the atheists as “coincidentally, by itself”. Their words are not based on any evidence or proof, they do not go beyond a claim and acceptance. This answer is not a very satisfying answer to people without prejudice. Neither coincidences nor unconscious beings are able to establish measures and balances in this incredibly huge universe.

These measures and balances can only be the work of a holy person, who observes the whole universe at any moment, who is omnipotent, and when doing a job, the other works are not hard for him. We call this holy person Allah.

References

Al-quran al-kareem

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  20. Fahrettin Razî, Tefsiru Fahri Razî, Daru’l-Fikr, 1995, c, 16,
  21. Rod Plotnik, Psikolojiye Giriş, Kaknüs Yayınları,
  22. Feriha Baymur, Genel Psikoloji, İnkılap ve Aka, İstanbul,1978,

[1] Buhârî, Muhammed b. İsmail, Sahih-i Buhârî, Kitabu Fedailü’l-Kur’an, Bab, 1; Sahih-i Müslim, Kitabu’l- İman, Bab, 70, Hn, 152.

[2] http://www.umitsamimi.com/2013/01/jupiter-dunyamizi-nasil-korur/ (Erişim, 5.06.2015)

[3] Bkz: http://www.tavsan.org/avustralya_istilasi.php

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